|Therapist is expert||View complaint as symptom;
Explores “stuck solution” behavior;
“Stop doing what is NOT working;”
Look for concrete, behavioral, and specific definition of problem.
|Therapist is expert||Look for concrete and behavioral problem in interaction of family members;
Explore parental hierarchy and family structure.
|Therapist is neutral||Identify interactional issues;
Identify power struggles and “dirty games.”
|MRI||Therapy terminates after 10 sessions or when symptom is resolved, whichever comes first);
Six-step process of treatment: Set-up; Problem identification; Exploration of attempted solutions; Goal setting; Intervention; Termination.
|Focus on most motivated person in system;
Restraining (“go slow”);
Stop doing what’s not working.
|Set small goals and do something different (180 degree change).|
|STRATEGIC||Therapy is brief (but not limited to 10 sessions);
Four stages of initial (critical) session: Social stage; Problem stage; Interactional stage; Goal-setting stage.
|Emphasize significance of family hierarchy (from Minuchin);
Utilized paradox (from Erickson);
|Prescribe directives (direct and paradoxical) and ordeals that make the cost of keeping the symptom greater than its benefit.|
|MILAN||Therapy is one session per month (up to 10 sessions);
Five stages of each session: Pre-session; Session; Intersession; Intervention; Post-session discussion.
Male/female co-therapists; Invariant Prescription and Power games (Palazzoli and Prata).
|Attempt to disrupt “dirty games” and change how clients view the problem.|